History潮汕簡史

Geography

Situated on the Southeast of Guangdong Province and neighboring Fujian, Chiu Chow is found on the Southern area of China – high on the Northwest on low on the Southeast. It has an area of approximately 100500 square Kilometres and a coastline as long as 200 Kilometres – 300 Kilometres when the islands are counted. Chiu Chow is blessed with a mild climate – located at the southmost tip of the Asia-European continents, Eastern Sea and Southern Sea on the South, across North America over the Pacific Ocean – occupying among the best of the lands, and populating among the best of peoples.

Demographics

Chiu Chow boasts a high population of 12 million, averaging one Chiuchower for every hundred Chinese. Shantou has the highest number of some 3.6 million; among the counties highest being Chao Yang’s over 2 Million. Most densely populated is Deng Hai County, averaging 1,865 per squared Kilometre, when least densely Jie Xi averages 482. And there are millions of those who have moved abroad.

Administration

During Xia, Shan, Zhou, Chiu Chow was barely inhabited. When Emperor Chin Shih Huang victored over Bai Yue 33 years into his enthronement (214 BC), military presence was established symbolizing that of the Emperor’s reign. At the end of Chin, Chen Shen and Wu Guang started a revolution, Zhao Tuo claimed himself ruler, rendering the first of political establishments. By Emperor Han Wu Year 6 (111 BC), the Emporer set up Jie Yang County at Southern Sea Commandry, being a part of the Central Government. At the time the Jie Yang Country territory included the nowadays Chao Shan areas, with Mei Chao City, and a part of Min Nang. By the Xu Dynasty Chiu Chow began to have administrative structure of five counties. After numerous changes through the dynasties of Tang, Song, Yuan, Chiu Chow had become ‘Chiu Chow Administrative Region.’ By Chong Zheng Year 7 (1634 AD), the ‘Chiu Chow Administrative Region’ included eight counties with great expansion of its territory. By administration, the Administrative Region was under the administration of Guangdong. Qian Long Year 3 (1737 AD), the Region administers 9 counties. In 1914 Guandong practised the System of ‘Dao Guan’, in 1920 under the administration of Guandong Province. In 1921 the Shantao City Government was set up, administrating separately from Denghai County, totally 10 counties in the area. In 1933 added Nanshan Committee at the intersection of Chaoyang, Puling, and Huiling, later changed to Nanshan Management Office. Japan Invaded, Chaozhou fell and a Colonial Government set up. In 1945 Japan surrendered unconditionally, the nation was handed back. The various counties of Chiu Chow designated the Office of Administrative Commission, overseeing counties including Chau On, Chau Yang, Jie Yang, Yao Ping, Hui Lai, Pui Ling, Deng Hai, Nan Ao, Feng Shun, and Tai Pao as well as Nan Shan Administrative Office, with Shan Tao directly under the Province. After 1949, the Office of Administrative Regional Commission of Chao Shan Region, Guandong People’s Government was formally set up, designating Shan Tao City as a provincially administrative city. Chao Shan became a Special Administrative Region in 1991.

Culture

At the time of Tan Xian Zong (819 AD), Han Wen Gong was Chiu Chow Commissioner who administered well, he upheld ‘Li’, ‘Yi’, resulting in a revival in culture. People worked hard, were well-educated, frugal, persevering, making the area a safe place to work in live in. Extending the geographical realm of Chiu Chow, leaning on mountains and facing the seas, rendering an ambitious and seaward-bound people, sailing the seas. Initially mostly Southeast Asia, with Thailand at the top. Chiuchowers have since been found across the nations. When Rangoon invaded Thailand, Zheng Chao took the lead and overcame the enemy, successfully defending the land, and was well-supported by the people. He became known as King Zheng of Thailand, much revered by those after him. Overseas Chiuchowers are known to be hardworking, of high integrity, business-savvy, blooming where they are planted, remembering and giving to the Motherland, treasuring and running education institutes, and establishing Chiu Chow benevolent associations in various places, coordinating the communities and villagers. ‘Ren’, ‘Yi’, ‘Li’, ‘Zhi’, shining among Chiu Chow descendents, wishing the Chiu Chow people carrying the baton, building a bright future.

地理環境

潮州地處中國南疆,屬廣東省的東南部,與福建毗鄰,地勢西北高而東南低。面積約為十萬零五百平方公里,海岸線長達兩百多公里,加上大小島 嶼與兩組列島共計有海岸線近三百公里。潮州氣候溫潤四季宜人,其北座歐亞大陸最南端、南臨東海、南海,隔大洋與美洲大陸相望,具海川日月之精華,古今人才輩出可謂地靈人杰。

人口密度

潮州人口稠密現約有一千兩百萬之眾,平均每一百名中國人中就有一位是潮人。汕頭市人口最多,達三百 六十多萬;而縣份中人口最多的是潮陽縣,已超過兩百萬,人口密度最大的是澄海縣,達每平方公里平均1,865人,人口密度最低的是揭西縣,每平方公里平均 482人。尚有移居於海外者,約數百萬之象。

建制延革

潮州在夏、商、周時尚屬荒僻之處。直到秦始皇三十三年(公元前214年)平定百越而設立戍所,標志了政權的存在。到了秦 末陳勝、吳廣起義,趙陀擁兵自立設揭陽令於斯,使潮州始有政權建制的存在。到了漢武帝元鼎六年(公元前111年),在南海郡下設立揭陽縣,隸屬於中原的政 權建制。那時揭陽縣的疆域範圍包括了現潮汕地區。及梅州市,和閩南的一部分。隨朝始有潮州的建制,下轄五髑縣。經過唐、宋、元諸朝,到了明代,潮州在經歷 了諸多變化之後已改稱潮州府。崇貞七年(公元1634年),潮州府統轄八個縣,地域也有極大的擴展。此時的潮州府在建制上隸屬於廣東佈政使。乾隆三年(公 元1737年),潮州府共管九個縣。民初 1914年廣東實行道官制,1920年屬廣東省省長公署管轄。1921年成立汕頭市政廳,與澄海縣分治,這一地區共有十個縣。1933年在潮陽、普寧和惠 來三縣交界處增設南山移懇委員會,後改為南山管理局。日本侵華,1939年潮州淪陷,設偽政府統治。1945年日本無條件投降,國土重光。潮州各縣設第五 區行政督察專員公署,管潮安、潮陽、揭陽、饒平、惠來、普寧、澄海、南澳、豐順、大埔等十縣及南山管理局,汕頭屬省府管轄。1949年後,廣東省人民政府 潮汕區行政督察專員公署正式成立,撥汕頭市為省轄市。1991年潮汕成為經濟特區。

文化啟迪

唐憲宗時(公元819年),韓文公為潮州刺使,施仁政、重禮、義,仁風感化,文化大興。男耕女織、知書守禮。民風儉樸、 刻苦耐勞,感公風化,萬古恆光。向外拓展潮州背靠高山面向大海的地理環境,使人民有海洋胸襟,勇于進取、遠渡重洋。初以東南亞各地為最,而落籍於泰國「暹 邏」者稱冠。而世界各地都有潮人足跡。仰光入侵泰國時,鄭昭一勇當先,擊退外敵、保衛國土、萬民歡騰、眾所愛戴。後稱泰國鄭王,忠勇雙全、實至名歸,足為 後人景範。潮人身居外邦,素以刻苦耐勞、忠誠敬業稱,淡薄經營均有成就,植地生金、心懷祖國、捐資回餵、興辦教育,培育英才,更於各地建立潮州會館,協和 社群、敦睦鄉誼。仁、義、禮、智,潮裔光輝,冀望我潮人士承先啟後,策勵將來。